Lyophilization is the process where moisture is removed from the perishable material and helps in extending their shed life and making the substance more portable. Lyophilization is otherwise called Crystallisation, used in the pharmaceutical industry to increase the stability and shelf life of the pharmaceutical industry. The Lyophilization of protein is removing the moisture from it, so that it could be stored for a longer period of time. The potency of frozen protein products is far greater than that of liquid formulations. The primary consideration during lyophilization is the long durability of protein compositions, which is correlated with water content. Small-molecule pharmaceuticals can typically be formulated without the addition of additives, or simply by adding a bulking agent or pH modifier to produce a liquid formulation that is rigid enough to withstand the time required before it can be freeze-dried. The primary consideration during lyophilization is the long durability of protein compositions, which is correlated with water content. Small-molecule pharmaceuticals can typically be formulated without the addition of additives, or simply by adding a bulking agent or pH modifier to produce a liquid formulation that is rigid enough to withstand the time required before it can be freeze-dried. The paper reviews different articles and journals to provide a critical analysis of the process of Lyophilization of protein and discuss its detailed process. The paper would review the strength and limitations of the Lyophilization process.
Among the renewable energy generation methods, the most interesting one is the photovoltaic energy technology, which has unlimited usage potential and generates electricity by using renewable sunlight. Solar cells are a secure and viable photoelectric technology that could substitute existing fossil fuel systems. Graphene, with its outstanding electrical and optical properties, mechanical flexibility, adjustable working function, attracts great interest among scientific research groups in many fields. It has been identified as an exceptional material for upcoming energy storage devices. This review examines a few features of graphenes and evaluates whether it is a feasible alternative to the traditional materials used in photovoltaic cells.
Due to the significance of “water clusters,” groups of water molecules locked together by hydrogen bonds, in understanding cloud and ice formation, solution chemistry, and a wide range of biological activities, they have been the focus of several intensive experimental and theoretical research. There is an obvious need for chemists to have a better knowledge of how such aggregates affect the general structure of their surrounds. “Water clusters” can play a significant role in the stability of supramolecular systems both in solution and in the solid state.
Superatoms have being researched because they could replace other elements. Superatom availability has drawn attention to the solution-phase synthesis of superatoms. The preceding method, however, is essentially restricted to the development of a single cluster. Here, superatoms are studied, and the presence of different numbers of gallium atoms is designed to alter the amount of valence electrons in these superatoms. Clusters of 3, 12, 13, and various numbers of atoms have been manufactured using the dendrimer template approach. Ga13 is structurally and electrochemically observed to be entirely distinct from the other clusters due to its halogen-like superatomic composition. The reactivities of the 13 and 3 atom gallium clusters, which may fill the 2P and 1P superatomic orbitals, respectively, vary.
Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. (kulthi) highly widespread form of legume crop that is frequently seen in southern India is a member of the Fabaceae family. Carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin C, and minerals are abundantly found in Macrotyloma uniflorum. Antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antioxidant capabilities of Macrotyloma uniflorum nourish the skin and lessen recurrent skin infections. The current study intends to demonstrate the major impact of ZnCl2 on seed germination of M. uniflorum. Morphological parameters, including as shoot length, root length, and fresh weight, were also examined after germination. Different concentrations of ZnCl2 (2%–10%) were applied to healthy, young seeds. The impact of metal stress (ZnCl2) on the germination of Macrotyloma uniflorum seeds, outcomes of seeds treated with ZnCl2 and untreated seeds were contrasted. The largest percentage of seed germination 80% is seen at 4% zinc chloride concentration, while the lowest 30% is seen at 10% zinc chloride concentration. While the highest shoot length and root length, respectively, are found at 4% concentration of ZnCl2.
This Review discusses current advancements in thermotropic ionic liquid crystal design, synthesis, characterization, and application from 2005 to 2015. It was created to provide a thorough review of the “state-of-the-art” in the industry. Low molar mass and dendrimeric thermotropic ionic mesogens, as well as a few metal-containing compounds are the main topics of study. However, there will also be some references to lyotropic or polymeric ionic liquid crystals, and more specifically, to ionic liquids. The focus will be on liquid-crystalline materials made up of organic cations and inorganic/organic anions that are not covalently bonded but interact via electrostatic and other noncovalent interactions, but mesoionic and zwitterionic mesogens are also discussed to some extent.
This chapter presents Lucas-Lehmer polynomials and its shifted form which make a series of orthogonal polynomials. The orthogonal polynomials have a big contribution in the approximation theory. We discuss and prove various essential aspects of Lucas-Lehmer polynomials such as the orthogonality, recursive relation and Parseval’s identity. The operational matrix of derivative and integral for LLP is also constructed.
Ageratum spp. are medicinal weed plant. Two varieties Ageratum houstonianum Mill and Ageratum conyzoides are very common and using in the medicinal field. Ageratum houstonianum Mill plant is ubiquitously found in every continent of the world. It is commonly known as Blue mink. Whereas Ageratum conyzoides Mill. is commonly known as blue billygoatweed and jungali pudina or appa grash in hindi. In India these are found everywhere in the tropical region. This weed plant have several medicinal properties such as antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial etc. The bioactive compounds of Ageratum Mill plants commercially used to treat several health problems such as wound healing. Recently blue mink has been screened for its antimicrobial and mosquitocidal activities. In this review authors have tried to summarize the bioactive compounds of medicinal values from the Ageratum spp. and their medicinal uses for human welfare.
In the last few years, mathematician & Scientist used numerous scientific studies to model the real-world problems related in the field of pharmacology or pharmaceutical sciences. In this paper we emphasis on the mathematical modeling of drug concentration in human blood stream. For this we formulate ordinary differential equation (ODE) based two models, in which first model is compartment model and second is the modified model when multiple drug doses are given to a patient at a regular time interval gap. For the solution of models we use some mathematical techniques like, Laplace transformation, delta function, Step function and interpreted the resultant equation of model from which we can evaluate the drug amount in human blood stream at any time t.
The study of nanotechnology has the potential to fundamentally alter how humans perceive and influence change in a variety of fields, including mass transfer, biomedicine, agriculture, and water management, among others. The word “Nano” refers to a type of technology that uses tiny particles that can be seen with the naked eye. Working at this size enables more successful creative solutions to special situations. For instance, employing zeolites and nanoclays to improve soil fertility and quality can increase fertiliser effectiveness. The development of intelligent seeds coated with nano-polymers and timed for germination under favourable conditions seems promising. Crops are often categorised according to their nutrient needs when precision farming inputs are used, and with the help of a Nano-biosensor and a satellite system, the distribution of nutrients may be tracked more precisely than with current techniques. This also highlights the creation of nano-herbicides to deal with weed control. Studies exist that show how efficient nano-fertilizers are in increasing the productivity and efficiency of the nutrients, lowering soli toxicity, and reducing potential contamination-related problems. Therefore, nanotechnology has great promise for sustainable agriculture, particularly in underdeveloped nations.
Abstract: Metal contamination in soil is a major problem growing rapidly now-a-days due to industrialization and human activities such as mining, smelting and electroplating. Metals above their permissible limit are dangerous due to high toxicity as they affect human and animal health. The high amount of these metals in soil is unacceptable for the cultivation of crops due to the risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. Thus, indirectly affect human health. Furthermore, decreased soil microorganism activity is also due to the presence of high amount of metal in soil as a result soil quality decreased. Thus, presence of high amount of metal in soil is one of the major environmental factors which influences many aspects of human life. Therefore, in light of above this study is an attempt to assessing the heavy metaleffects in soiland its consequences.
Abstract: With the growing technology of semiconducting materials, it is essential to understand the photonic properties of materials. Optical absorption measurements of materials are widely used to evaluate the parameters such as the absorption coefficient, band gap energy, and lifetime of excited state, etc.UV-Visible spectroscopy is the tool to analysethe optical behaviour of materials. Ferritesare both thermally and chemically stable ferrimagnetic materials which consisting of the properties of semiconducting materials that have been used for numerous electronic applications. Optical behaviour of ferrites refers to the study of their interaction with light and extracting information about band gap, refractive index, absorption coefficient, etc.From the absorption spectra of ferrites it was confirmed that they can absorb considerable amount of UV and visible lightdue to which it recivedenormous interest from researchers to apply as a photocatalyst in organic/inorganic dye degradation, pollutant removal from wastewater, etc.This review provides an overview of UV-Visible spectra of ferritesalongwiththe qualitative and quantitative analysis of commonly used ferrites in photocatalytic activity.
Metal oxide based nanocomposite gas sensor is a device that converts the information of a gas or vapor analyte species into electrical signals using various detection principles. Change in electrical resistance/absorbance occurs when sensing material is exposed to the particular gas which is to be exposed. In order to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of sensing material various metal dopants and different types of heterojunction can be formed with the combination of organic and inorganic materials. Due to the modification with the formation of p-n and n-n heterostructures by the inclusion of dopants and different types of nanomaterials, stability and reversibility of sensing material can be enhanced and also the response and recovery time of the material can be reduced. Surface morphology of different dimentional materials (0D, 1D, 2D, 3D etc) plays a vital role for the absorption and desorption of gas analyte. Sensing material should have large number of active sites for interaction of large analyte molecules.
Considering numerous applications in biomedical, electronic devices, wastewater treatment, industries etc. spinel ferrite nanoparticles have becomematerials great interest. Because of its many advantages over conventional synthesis techniques, the green or bio production of ferrite nanoparticles has attracted enough attention recently. The green production of spinel ferrite nanoparticles, their characterisation, and their utilisation in many fields are the main topics of this review article. The use of plant extracts or plant-based synthesis techniques of spinel ferrites is discussed.
In Asian ethnomedical system, Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz have been used to treat various diseases such as hepatic troubles like jaundice, cardiac diseases, rheumatic and arthritic troubles, ulcers, respiratory problems, gastro-intestinal ailments, headaches, wounds, burns, snake bite and scorpion stings. The present work summarizes the scientific evidences that support therapeutic potential of O. indicum. The mini-review is based on the information available on pharmacological and ethnobotanical data of O. indicum from various research articles, review papers and book chapters. Various experimental studies have verified the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, cardio glycosides, phenols,saponins, sterols and other phytochemicals in O. indicum. Numerous active principles have been isolated from different parts of this plant of which most abundant and promising are oroxylin A, Baicalein, Chrysin and Scutellarin. In in vivo and in vitro preclinical models, the plant is found to act against varied microbial infections, gastrointestinal, respiratory, hepatic and cardiac disorders. It is also found to have anti-cancer properties and is also competent in the treatment of diabetes, obesity, wound healing etc.