YEAR – 2020 | Volume-1 | Issue-1
Biomass ash is a complex inorganic-organic mixture with polycomponent, heterogenous or byproduct from biomass feedstock shows adsorption capacity for heavy metals and could be economical and environment friendly adsorbent. Graphene oxide (GO) are efficient adsorbent for removal of dyes, metal ions and toxic compounds. When biomass ash is used as composite formation along with Graphene Oxide then its adsorption capacity is enhanced. In the present work, Biomass ash on Graphene oxide base composite adsorbent (GO-g-BA) is synthesized for the effective removal of Cu (II) ions present in industrial waste water. They were characterized by FTIR, UV, FESEM and adsorption was studied by employing AAS with variables like pH. The results showed that BA-g-GO composite is an efficient adsorbent with 55.7 % for Cu(II) at pH 4.5. GO-g-BA composite was significant adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions present in wastewater.
Keywords:Biomass ash; Graphene oxide; Composite.
Recently, the applications of green synthetic processes in field of biological, chemical and pharmacological sciences have achieved essential roles. One of the major applications of green chemistry is the synthesis of zero valent metal and metal oxide nanoparticles using natural and abundant biologicalmaterials. In the present study, we have carried out the successful synthesis of copper (II) oxide nanoparticles (CuONPS) by using the leaf extract of Urtica dioica and formation of nanoparticles confirmed by a visual color change of the solution and then UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthetic method was found very low cost, effective, efficient and eco-friendly. The synthesised nanoparticles have been characterised by using different analytical methods such as FTIR, UV-Visible, powder XRD and FESEM. The antibacterial activity of CuONPSwas checked by well diffusion method against S. aureus, S. mutans and E. coli. The maximum zone of inhibition was found for S. mutans after incubation period and at specific dosage of copper nanoparticles.
Keywords: Green synthesis, CuONPS, Characterisation, Antibacterial activity.
Mosquito-borne diseases caused illness in approximately 700 million people per year globally. Dengue (DENV) is a one of them mosquito-borne emerging viral disease endemic prominently in many urban areas of tropical countries. Nature has provided us with various resources to fight and recover from such infectious diseases. This review focuses on the understanding of dengue, potential anti dengue activity and insecticidal activity of various medicinal plants. Further laboratory investigations and more research are needed to establish the product which having potential to control dengue disease. Thus, the development of a traditional medicinal plant-based antiviral product assures a more possible choice in combating dengue infection which may be replacement of inadequate drug with side effective.
Keywords: Anti-dengue activity, Dengue, Insecticidal activity, Medicinal plants
Peroxynitrite is a very good oxidizing agent which is formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with super oxide. There are so many works are reported which clearly indicate that peroxynitrite react with lipid protein and DNA. In our present work we report the oxidation of a very well known antiviral drug penciclovir by peroxynitrite. The oxidation of our selected drug was achieved by refluxing the drug with sodium nitrite, the progress of the reaction was monitored by thin layer chromatography and the product of the reaction was isolated by column chromatography. We also purposed the probable mechanism of the formation of different product.
Key words: Penciclovir, Peroxynitrite, Antiviral drug, Thin layer Chromatography.
Environmental nanotechnology is considered to play a principal role in shaping current environmental engineering and science. Looking at the nanoscale has stimulated the development and use of novel and cost-effective technologies for catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants as well as other environmental concerns. Polymer-based nanocomposites (PNCs) which incorporate the advantages of both nanoparticles and polymers, received increasing attention in both academia and industry. This introductory review focuses on the general introduction of the nanocomposites, and the synthetic routes ofnanocomposites. It will explore the application of nanocomposites for environmental remediation as well.
Keywords: nanotechnology, PNCs, synthesis, applications
The lipophilic food bioactive has attracted great interest by food and pharmaceutical industries due to their potential health benefits. However, the effectiveness of these components is restricted due to poor solubility, oxidation and variable bioavailability. The utilization of these compounds in form of encapsulated one can effectively alleviate these drawbacks. The technologies of encapsulation, including spray drying, coacervation, liposome entrapment, nanoencapsulation, nanogels and nanoemulsion, are discussed in this review paper.
Key words: lipophilic, nanoencapsulation, food.
Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), decided to blend at least 20% biofuels with diesel and petrol by 2017. Biodiesel has obtained from algal oils and waste cooking oil that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel.In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalgaeChlorella singularisand waste cooking oil has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM) and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Indian petro-diesel. The obtained results showed that; C2+A2+B8+D88 blended biodiesel of algae and cooked oil showed that the high oxidation stability and higher load carrying. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.
Key words: Microalgae;waste cooking oils; biodiesel; Butanol; Indian petro-diesel.
Worldwide millions of people suffer from nerve tissue injury- SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) that will result paralysis and experience of life-threatening problems. Till date there are different methods have been described to be effective in the treatment of SCI but there is no remedy available for full functional recovery of SCI. Stem cells and tissue specific growth factors entrapped matrixes along with the tissue engineering principle are the used for the treatments and for repairing SCI. Although these techniques overcome the limitation of traditional clinical methods but still they cannot restore the bio-functionality of the regenerated tissue after the injury. Therefore, the major challenge that is faced by the biomedical experts is to repair and regenerated a structural bio-functional damaged nerve tissue.
Key words: soya bean , Chunks , Water absorption capacity, moisture level, Protein test
In order to provide speech analysis, speech production and perception can be exploited with the help of various speech processing applications. Few properties or features can be extracted from speech signal S(n) with the help of speech analysis. With the objective of simplifying the speech signal and for removing the redundancy present within the speech signal, the transformation of S(n) is done into another signal. In this research work, the novel technique is proposed to remove empty bands from the speech signal. The proposed technique is based on the threshold value for the removal of empty bands. In the proposed technique, the frequency of each band is calculated and a band which has frequency below threshold value is removed from the signal. The performance of the proposed technique is tested in MATLAB and it is analyzed that proposed technique performs well in terms speech enhancement.
Key words: Empty bands, LDA.
Legumes and pulses are rich sources of protein. Chunks are good source of protein for vegan diet. Chunks can prepared with soyabean , legumes and vegetables. Theobjective of present study was to prepare and analyses preserved chunks.The study established the pH7.40 this pH was maintained by proper dehydration. Moisture content of the green gram chunks 10% andsoya chunks 15% Moisture content of gram flour chunk is 10%. Therefore, this is the reason of the variation in moisture present in the chunks. Water absorption capacity of domestic chunk is 8gm in total 100 gram chunks.Protein content of gram flour chunk is 5. 13% and that of soya chunk is 5.3%.Chunks are dried product of green gram, gram flour and soya bean which can prepared by soaking, drying and mixing of pulses and spices. This chunk is good option for protein source and can be alternate for food processing industry.
Key words: soya bean , chunks , water absorption capacity, moisture level, Protein test
YEAR-2021 | Volume-2 | Issue-1
Catharanthus roseus commonly known as sadabahar is a well known plant for its abundant growth and flowers in many parts of world. However the plant also possesses several medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, etc. This medicinal potential of the plant can be attributed to presence of several bioactive phytochemical compounds synthesized in the plant. Among different metabolites alkaloids are the most important class of compounds synthesized in almost all parts of the plant including root, stem, leaves and flowers. Besides having medicinal potential plant has also been characterized to be toxic.
Mayonnaise is one of emulsion food are popular and are consumed all over the world because of the special texture and taste. Mayonnaise commonly used for dressings of salad and spreading in bread and buns. It is a typical oil-in-water (O/W) type emulsion in which lipid is dispersed in water. The aim of present study is to formulate low fat high protein mayonnaise. Reduced fat (RF) mayonnaise was formulated by replacing part of the oil with refined wheat flour gelatinized rice starch and the effect of their inclusion on the sensory properties was investigated. the overall samples of mayonnaise in different ration of soya flour, rice flour and refined wheat flour were prepared. The results were shows that Reduced fat mayonnaise has good taste and appearance. With sensory score of taste were 9.6± .137 and control sample was 7.8± .233. the sample L.F.M. and M.F.M. has good amount of protein 10.6±.152 and 11.5±.153 respectively. the overall acceptability of sample R.F.M was 9.3± .128 which was good in taste and aroma.
Ciprofloxacin HCI, is a highly popular antibacterial agent in the third world countries including India. Many companies are engaged in manufacturing and marketing the brands, purchasing the basic drug from the core suppliers. Often these brands vary in cost and companies usually claim superiority of their product to justify the higher price. There is a possibility that products containing same amount of basic drug are therapeutically equivalent. So, if it can be proved that the different brands are therapeutically equivalent, they can be substituted for each in prescription and patient can be take advantage of an economic dosage regimen. This could be achieved by assessing physicochemical equivalence of different brands of the drug. Assessment may include the evaluation of uniformity of weight, friability, hardness, disintegration and dissolution tests as well as chemical assay of tablets.
Multilayer graphene like (MLG) film were grown on copper substrates by the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PECVD) technique at low pressure of ~ 5.5 x 10-2 Torr. Copper has been used as catalyst substrate for deposition. The growth temperature was found to be 750 ºC. The precursor gas methane was found to dissociate at low temperature with assist of plasma. The MLG films were removed from copper with the help of ferric chloride solution and were transferred to glass substrate. The appearance of 2D band in Raman spectra confirms the growth of graphene film. The highest I2D/IG ratio was found to be 0.70, which confirms few layer graphene.
Due to widespread medicinal importance and wide region of Morus alba and Andrographis paniculata, the present work has been undertaken to study the phytochemicals and their antimicrobial efficacy in their leaf extracts. The leaves samples of both the selected plant were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis for the presence of various secondary metabolites by various spectrophotometric techniques. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins in Andrographis paniculata and tannins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phlobatannins and saponins in Morus alba. The present investigation is also reveals that both the selected samples exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. So it is also proved as a source of certain antimicrobial molecules.
Coconut husk or coir is mesocarp part of the coconut fruit which is considered as agriculture waste. This fibre is dumped but rich in nutrients like cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. So, this study represents a effective utilization of coconut husk fibre for sorption of Cu(II) metal ions. In this study nanoparticles of coconut husk-SnO2 was prepared by functionalization of coconut husk with oxidising agents and then nanoparticles were prepared by redox initiation system, which was characterized by FTIR, FESEM, TEM. The sorption capacitywere evaluated by AAS and parameters such as the effect of pHwere optimized. The maximum percent removal obtained is 85.81% for Cu(II) at pH 7.2. In the endCH-SnO2is found to be an effective adsorbent for the sorption of Cu(II) metal ions.
Drying is required for the food preservation and is widely used worldwide. Numerous drying techniques and methods are used in drying of different agricultural products. Each technique has its own advantage and limitation. Drying process makes the food lighter in weight which is easy to transport, requires smaller space for storage and gives it the longer life. Present study involves the evaluation of the drying characteristics and mathematical modelling of Camellia sinensis, under different drying temperatures. The performance of the best model does depends on the determination and comparison of the correlation coefficient (R), mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), and reduced chi-square ().
In the present paper we have to study future population forecasting in India by the geometrical model used to census population data. Design is based on the projected population of India, estimated for the design period. Changes in population over the years occur, and the system should be designed into account of the population at the end of the design period. Factors affecting changes in population are increase due to births, decrease due to deaths, increase and decrease due to the migration and increase due to the annexation. The present and past population record in India can be obtained from the census population records. After collecting these population records, the population at the end of design period is predicted using various geometrical methods as suitable for the growth pattern.
It wasDecember 31, 2019, when a cluster of patients was observed having pneumonia like symptoms and China informed the World Health Organization of anovel viralpneumoniain sea food market of Wuhan city, in Hubei Province. This pathogenic agent exhibited its high emerging ability and blowout all over the world in a very sort span of time. This newly emerging virus displayed influenza like symptoms along with severe chest pain and sore throat etc. The etiology of these infectionswas a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), possibly connectedto zoonotic or environmental exposure from the seafood market in Wuhan. Humantohuman transmission has accounted for most of the infections, including among health care workers.In this review we compared the clinical characteristic, management, outcomes, and infection control practices for patients infected with novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
Consumption of F & V has been associated with diverse health interest. Fruits and vegetables can be consumed in both forms either processed or fresh. Consumption & production of minimal processed foods has acquired increasing demand in the market. Due to changes in life -style of consumers fresh-cut F &V are gaining popularity. However, it summons for fresh or minimal processed F & V by maintaining the properties of fresh-cut products for a extended time period. Fresh-cut products has a much bigger surface to cut & accordingly having less shelf-life. Rejection of the product by consumers is due to some quality issues such as flavor, color, firmness, juiciness & loss of moisture lead to shorter shelf- life. Recent Developments in edible coatings & packaging technology for foods have shown encouraging results in prolonging the shelf-life of fresh-cut F & V . A solution for preserving the fruits & vegetable is coating with edible films. Therefore, this article reviews the scope of fresh-cut fruits & vegetables and extending its shelf-life by means of edible coating. Edible coatings can be composed of different substances of various types. These can be grouped together into proteins, carbs &lipids-based coatings &their characteristics.