YEAR – 2022 | Volume-3 | Issue-1
The effect of Lyophilization technique on the stability and durability of protein molecule: A Review
Lyophilization is the process where moisture is removed from the perishable material and helps in extending their shed life and making the substance more portable. Lyophilization is otherwise called Crystallisation, used in the pharmaceutical industry to increase the stability and shelf life of the pharmaceutical industry. The Lyophilization of protein is removing the moisture from it, so that it could be stored for a longer period of time. The potency of frozen protein products is far greater than that of liquid formulations. The primary consideration during lyophilization is the long durability of protein compositions, which is correlated with water content. Small-molecule pharmaceuticals can typically be formulated without the addition of additives, or simply by adding a bulking agent or pH modifier to produce a liquid formulation that is rigid enough to withstand the time required before it can be freeze-dried. The primary consideration during lyophilization is the long durability of protein compositions, which is correlated with water content. Small-molecule pharmaceuticals can typically be formulated without the addition of additives, or simply by adding a bulking agent or pH modifier to produce a liquid formulation that is rigid enough to withstand the time required before it can be freeze-dried. The paper reviews different articles and journals to provide a critical analysis of the process of Lyophilization of protein and discuss its detailed process. The paper would review the strength and limitations of the Lyophilization process.
Graphene based Solar cells and superior energy conversion
Among the renewable energy generation methods, the most interesting one is the photovoltaic energy technology, which has unlimited usage potential and generates electricity by using renewable sunlight. Solar cells are a secure and viable photoelectric technology that could substitute existing fossil fuel systems. Graphene, with its outstanding electrical and optical properties, mechanical flexibility, adjustable working function, attracts great interest among scientific research groups in many fields. It has been identified as an exceptional material for upcoming energy storage devices. This review examines a few features of graphenes and evaluates whether it is a feasible alternative to the traditional materials used in photovoltaic cells.
Density functional theory used for the study of molecular interaction in water cluster: A review
Due to the significance of “water clusters,” groups of water molecules locked together by hydrogen bonds, in understanding cloud and ice formation, solution chemistry, and a wide range of biological activities, they have been the focus of several intensive experimental and theoretical research. There is an obvious need for chemists to have a better knowledge of how such aggregates affect the general structure of their surrounds. “Water clusters” can play a significant role in the stability of supramolecular systems both in solution and in the solid state.
A quantum mechanical study of gallium clusters: Review
Superatoms have being researched because they could replace other elements. Superatom availability has drawn attention to the solution-phase synthesis of superatoms. The preceding method, however, is essentially restricted to the development of a single cluster. Here, superatoms are studied, and the presence of different numbers of gallium atoms is designed to alter the amount of valence electrons in these superatoms. Clusters of 3, 12, 13, and various numbers of atoms have been manufactured using the dendrimer template approach. Ga13 is structurally and electrochemically observed to be entirely distinct from the other clusters due to its halogen-like superatomic composition. The reactivities of the 13 and 3 atom gallium clusters, which may fill the 2P and 1P superatomic orbitals, respectively, vary.
Analysis of Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. (kulthi) seed germination rate under ZnCl2 stress
Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. (kulthi) highly widespread form of legume crop that is frequently seen in southern India is a member of the Fabaceae family. Carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin C, and minerals are abundantly found in Macrotyloma uniflorum. Antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antioxidant capabilities of Macrotyloma uniflorum nourish the skin and lessen recurrent skin infections. The current study intends to demonstrate the major impact of ZnCl2 on seed germination of M. uniflorum. Morphological parameters, including as shoot length, root length, and fresh weight, were also examined after germination. Different concentrations of ZnCl2 (2%–10%) were applied to healthy, young seeds. The impact of metal stress (ZnCl2) on the germination of Macrotyloma uniflorum seeds, outcomes of seeds treated with ZnCl2 and untreated seeds were contrasted. The largest percentage of seed germination 80% is seen at 4% zinc chloride concentration, while the lowest 30% is seen at 10% zinc chloride concentration. While the highest shoot length and root length, respectively, are found at 4% concentration of ZnCl2.
Review: Ionic Liquid Crystal
This Review discusses current advancements in thermotropic ionic liquid crystal design, synthesis, characterization, and application from 2005 to 2015. It was created to provide a thorough review of the “state-of-the-art” in the industry. Low molar mass and dendrimeric thermotropic ionic mesogens, as well as a few metal-containing compounds are the main topics of study. However, there will also be some references to lyotropic or polymeric ionic liquid crystals, and more specifically, to ionic liquids. The focus will be on liquid-crystalline materials made up of organic cations and inorganic/organic anions that are not covalently bonded but interact via electrostatic and other noncovalent interactions, but mesoionic and zwitterionic mesogens are also discussed to some extent.
Numerical view of Lucas-Lehmer polynomials with its characteristics
This chapter presents Lucas-Lehmer polynomials and its shifted form which make a series of orthogonal polynomials. The orthogonal polynomials have a big contribution in the approximation theory. We discuss and prove various essential aspects of Lucas-Lehmer polynomials such as the orthogonality, recursive relation and Parseval’s identity. The operational matrix of derivative and integral for LLP is also constructed.
Ageratum spp: An excellent therapeutic medicinal plant
Ageratum spp. are medicinal weed plant. Two varieties Ageratum houstonianum Mill and Ageratum conyzoides are very common and using in the medicinal field. Ageratum houstonianum Mill plant is ubiquitously found in every continent of the world. It is commonly known as Blue mink. Whereas Ageratum conyzoides Mill. is commonly known as blue billygoatweed and jungali pudina or appa grash in hindi. In India these are found everywhere in the tropical region. This weed plant have several medicinal properties such as antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial etc. The bioactive compounds of Ageratum Mill plants commercially used to treat several health problems such as wound healing. Recently blue mink has been screened for its antimicrobial and mosquitocidal activities. In this review authors have tried to summarize the bioactive compounds of medicinal values from the Ageratum spp. and their medicinal uses for human welfare.
ODE Based Modeling of Drug Concentrations in Human Bloodstream
In the last few years, mathematician & Scientist used numerous scientific studies to model the real-world problems related in the field of pharmacology or pharmaceutical sciences. In this paper we emphasis on the mathematical modeling of drug concentration in human blood stream. For this we formulate ordinary differential equation (ODE) based two models, in which first model is compartment model and second is the modified model when multiple drug doses are given to a patient at a regular time interval gap. For the solution of models we use some mathematical techniques like, Laplace transformation, delta function, Step function and interpreted the resultant equation of model from which we can evaluate the drug amount in human blood stream at any time t.
Review on nanotechnology based metallic compound
The study of nanotechnology has the potential to fundamentally alter how humans perceive and influence change in a variety of fields, including mass transfer, biomedicine, agriculture, and water management, among others. The word “Nano” refers to a type of technology that uses tiny particles that can be seen with the naked eye. Working at this size enables more successful creative solutions to special situations. For instance, employing zeolites and nanoclays to improve soil fertility and quality can increase fertiliser effectiveness. The development of intelligent seeds coated with nano-polymers and timed for germination under favourable conditions seems promising. Crops are often categorised according to their nutrient needs when precision farming inputs are used, and with the help of a Nano-biosensor and a satellite system, the distribution of nutrients may be tracked more precisely than with current techniques. This also highlights the creation of nano-herbicides to deal with weed control. Studies exist that show how efficient nano-fertilizers are in increasing the productivity and efficiency of the nutrients, lowering soli toxicity, and reducing potential contamination-related problems. Therefore, nanotechnology has great promise for sustainable agriculture, particularly in underdeveloped nations.
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil: A Review
Abstract: Metal contamination in soil is a major problem growing rapidly now-a-days due to industrialization and human activities such as mining, smelting and electroplating. Metals above their permissible limit are dangerous due to high toxicity as they affect human and animal health. The high amount of these metals in soil is unacceptable for the cultivation of crops due to the risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. Thus, indirectly affect human health. Furthermore, decreased soil microorganism activity is also due to the presence of high amount of metal in soil as a result soil quality decreased. Thus, presence of high amount of metal in soil is one of the major environmental factors which influences many aspects of human life. Therefore, in light of above this study is an attempt to assessing the heavy metaleffects in soiland its consequences.
A Brief Review on UV-Visible Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Ferrite Materials
Abstract: With the growing technology of semiconducting materials, it is essential to understand the photonic properties of materials. Optical absorption measurements of materials are widely used to evaluate the parameters such as the absorption coefficient, band gap energy, and lifetime of excited state, etc.UV-Visible spectroscopy is the tool to analysethe optical behaviour of materials. Ferritesare both thermally and chemically stable ferrimagnetic materials which consisting of the properties of semiconducting materials that have been used for numerous electronic applications. Optical behaviour of ferrites refers to the study of their interaction with light and extracting information about band gap, refractive index, absorption coefficient, etc.From the absorption spectra of ferrites it was confirmed that they can absorb considerable amount of UV and visible lightdue to which it recivedenormous interest from researchers to apply as a photocatalyst in organic/inorganic dye degradation, pollutant removal from wastewater, etc.This review provides an overview of UV-Visible spectra of ferritesalongwiththe qualitative and quantitative analysis of commonly used ferrites in photocatalytic activity.
YEAR-2021 | Volume-2 | Issue-1
Monograph of medicinally important plant Catharanthus roseus
Catharanthus roseus commonly known as sadabahar is a well known plant for its abundant growth and flowers in many parts of world. However the plant also possesses several medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, etc. This medicinal potential of the plant can be attributed to presence of several bioactive phytochemical compounds synthesized in the plant. Among different metabolites alkaloids are the most important class of compounds synthesized in almost all parts of the plant including root, stem, leaves and flowers. Besides having medicinal potential plant has also been characterized to be toxic.
Formulation And Sensory Evaluation Of Reduced Fat (Rf) High Protein Mayonnaise
Mayonnaise is one of emulsion food are popular and are consumed all over the world because of the special texture and taste. Mayonnaise commonly used for dressings of salad and spreading in bread and buns. It is a typical oil-in-water (O/W) type emulsion in which lipid is dispersed in water. The aim of present study is to formulate low fat high protein mayonnaise. Reduced fat (RF) mayonnaise was formulated by replacing part of the oil with refined wheat flour gelatinized rice starch and the effect of their inclusion on the sensory properties was investigated. the overall samples of mayonnaise in different ration of soya flour, rice flour and refined wheat flour were prepared. The results were shows that Reduced fat mayonnaise has good taste and appearance. With sensory score of taste were 9.6± .137 and control sample was 7.8± .233. the sample L.F.M. and M.F.M. has good amount of protein 10.6±.152 and 11.5±.153 respectively. the overall acceptability of sample R.F.M was 9.3± .128 which was good in taste and aroma.
Comparative Evaluation of Various Brands Ciprofloxacin HCI Tablets
Ciprofloxacin HCI, is a highly popular antibacterial agent in the third world countries including India. Many companies are engaged in manufacturing and marketing the brands, purchasing the basic drug from the core suppliers. Often these brands vary in cost and companies usually claim superiority of their product to justify the higher price. There is a possibility that products containing same amount of basic drug are therapeutically equivalent. So, if it can be proved that the different brands are therapeutically equivalent, they can be substituted for each in prescription and patient can be take advantage of an economic dosage regimen. This could be achieved by assessing physicochemical equivalence of different brands of the drug. Assessment may include the evaluation of uniformity of weight, friability, hardness, disintegration and dissolution tests as well as chemical assay of tablets.
Low Temperature Graphene-Like Film Growth By Microwave Plasma Enhance Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique
Multilayer graphene like (MLG) film were grown on copper substrates by the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PECVD) technique at low pressure of ~ 5.5 x 10-2 Torr. Copper has been used as catalyst substrate for deposition. The growth temperature was found to be 750 ºC. The precursor gas methane was found to dissociate at low temperature with assist of plasma. The MLG films were removed from copper with the help of ferric chloride solution and were transferred to glass substrate. The appearance of 2D band in Raman spectra confirms the growth of graphene film. The highest I2D/IG ratio was found to be 0.70, which confirms few layer graphene.
Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial activities from leaf extracts of Morus alba and Andrographis paniculata
Due to widespread medicinal importance and wide region of Morus alba and Andrographis paniculata, the present work has been undertaken to study the phytochemicals and their antimicrobial efficacy in their leaf extracts. The leaves samples of both the selected plant were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis for the presence of various secondary metabolites by various spectrophotometric techniques. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins in Andrographis paniculata and tannins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phlobatannins and saponins in Morus alba. The present investigation is also reveals that both the selected samples exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. So it is also proved as a source of certain antimicrobial molecules.
Synthesis of Coconut husk-SnO2 Nanoparticles for sorption of Cu(II)
Coconut husk or coir is mesocarp part of the coconut fruit which is considered as agriculture waste. This fibre is dumped but rich in nutrients like cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. So, this study represents a effective utilization of coconut husk fibre for sorption of Cu(II) metal ions. In this study nanoparticles of coconut husk-SnO2 was prepared by functionalization of coconut husk with oxidising agents and then nanoparticles were prepared by redox initiation system, which was characterized by FTIR, FESEM, TEM. The sorption capacitywere evaluated by AAS and parameters such as the effect of pHwere optimized. The maximum percent removal obtained is 85.81% for Cu(II) at pH 7.2. In the endCH-SnO2is found to be an effective adsorbent for the sorption of Cu(II) metal ions.
A Review on Drying Characteristics and Mathematical modeling of drying of Camellia sinensis
Drying is required for the food preservation and is widely used worldwide. Numerous drying techniques and methods are used in drying of different agricultural products. Each technique has its own advantage and limitation. Drying process makes the food lighter in weight which is easy to transport, requires smaller space for storage and gives it the longer life. Present study involves the evaluation of the drying characteristics and mathematical modelling of Camellia sinensis, under different drying temperatures. The performance of the best model does depends on the determination and comparison of the correlation coefficient (R), mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), and reduced chi-square ().
Application of Mathematical Modeling in Population forecasting
In the present paper we have to study future population forecasting in India by the geometrical model used to census population data. Design is based on the projected population of India, estimated for the design period. Changes in population over the years occur, and the system should be designed into account of the population at the end of the design period. Factors affecting changes in population are increase due to births, decrease due to deaths, increase and decrease due to the migration and increase due to the annexation. The present and past population record in India can be obtained from the census population records. After collecting these population records, the population at the end of design period is predicted using various geometrical methods as suitable for the growth pattern.
Emergent Infectious Disease: Coronavirus COVID-19: The present foe
It wasDecember 31, 2019, when a cluster of patients was observed having pneumonia like symptoms and China informed the World Health Organization of anovel viralpneumoniain sea food market of Wuhan city, in Hubei Province. This pathogenic agent exhibited its high emerging ability and blowout all over the world in a very sort span of time. This newly emerging virus displayed influenza like symptoms along with severe chest pain and sore throat etc. The etiology of these infectionswas a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), possibly connectedto zoonotic or environmental exposure from the seafood market in Wuhan. Humantohuman transmission has accounted for most of the infections, including among health care workers.In this review we compared the clinical characteristic, management, outcomes, and infection control practices for patients infected with novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
A Review on Novel Edible Coatings for fresh- cut Fruit and Vegetable
Consumption of F & V has been associated with diverse health interest. Fruits and vegetables can be consumed in both forms either processed or fresh. Consumption & production of minimal processed foods has acquired increasing demand in the market. Due to changes in life -style of consumers fresh-cut F &V are gaining popularity. However, it summons for fresh or minimal processed F & V by maintaining the properties of fresh-cut products for a extended time period. Fresh-cut products has a much bigger surface to cut & accordingly having less shelf-life. Rejection of the product by consumers is due to some quality issues such as flavor, color, firmness, juiciness & loss of moisture lead to shorter shelf- life. Recent Developments in edible coatings & packaging technology for foods have shown encouraging results in prolonging the shelf-life of fresh-cut F & V . A solution for preserving the fruits & vegetable is coating with edible films. Therefore, this article reviews the scope of fresh-cut fruits & vegetables and extending its shelf-life by means of edible coating. Edible coatings can be composed of different substances of various types. These can be grouped together into proteins, carbs &lipids-based coatings &their characteristics.
YEAR – 2020 | Volume-1 | Issue-1
Adsorption properties of Biomass Ash/ Graphene Oxide Composite for the Removal of Copper from Industrial Waste Water
Biomass ash is a complex inorganic-organic mixture with polycomponent, heterogenous or byproduct from biomass feedstock shows adsorption capacity for heavy metals and could be economical and environment friendly adsorbent. Graphene oxide (GO) are efficient adsorbent for removal of dyes, metal ions and toxic compounds. When biomass ash is used as composite formation along with Graphene Oxide then its adsorption capacity is enhanced. In the present work, Biomass ash on Graphene oxide base composite adsorbent (GO-g-BA) is synthesized for the effective removal of Cu (II) ions present in industrial waste water. They were characterized by FTIR, UV, FESEM and adsorption was studied by employing AAS with variables like pH. The results showed that BA-g-GO composite is an efficient adsorbent with 55.7 % for Cu(II) at pH 4.5. GO-g-BA composite was significant adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions present in wastewater.
Keywords:Biomass ash; Graphene oxide; Composite.
Green synthesis of copper (II) oxidenanoparticles (CuONPS) using leaves extract of Urtica dioica, Characterisations and antimicrobial activity
Recently, the applications of green synthetic processes in field of biological, chemical and pharmacological sciences have achieved essential roles. One of the major applications of green chemistry is the synthesis of zero valent metal and metal oxide nanoparticles using natural and abundant biologicalmaterials. In the present study, we have carried out the successful synthesis of copper (II) oxide nanoparticles (CuONPS) by using the leaf extract of Urtica dioica and formation of nanoparticles confirmed by a visual color change of the solution and then UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthetic method was found very low cost, effective, efficient and eco-friendly. The synthesised nanoparticles have been characterised by using different analytical methods such as FTIR, UV-Visible, powder XRD and FESEM. The antibacterial activity of CuONPSwas checked by well diffusion method against S. aureus, S. mutans and E. coli. The maximum zone of inhibition was found for S. mutans after incubation period and at specific dosage of copper nanoparticles.
Keywords: Green synthesis, CuONPS, Characterisation, Antibacterial activity.
Potential Use of Medicinal plants for Dengue: A Systematic Mini review of Scientific Evidence
Mosquito-borne diseases caused illness in approximately 700 million people per year globally. Dengue (DENV) is a one of them mosquito-borne emerging viral disease endemic prominently in many urban areas of tropical countries. Nature has provided us with various resources to fight and recover from such infectious diseases. This review focuses on the understanding of dengue, potential anti dengue activity and insecticidal activity of various medicinal plants. Further laboratory investigations and more research are needed to establish the product which having potential to control dengue disease. Thus, the development of a traditional medicinal plant-based antiviral product assures a more possible choice in combating dengue infection which may be replacement of inadequate drug with side effective.
Keywords: Anti-dengue activity, Dengue, Insecticidal activity, Medicinal plants
Peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration products of Penciclovir: Structures and mechanisms of product formation
Peroxynitrite is a very good oxidizing agent which is formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with super oxide. There are so many works are reported which clearly indicate that peroxynitrite react with lipid protein and DNA. In our present work we report the oxidation of a very well known antiviral drug penciclovir by peroxynitrite. The oxidation of our selected drug was achieved by refluxing the drug with sodium nitrite, the progress of the reaction was monitored by thin layer chromatography and the product of the reaction was isolated by column chromatography. We also purposed the probable mechanism of the formation of different product.
Key words: Penciclovir, Peroxynitrite, Antiviral drug, Thin layer Chromatography.
Polymer nanocomposites: Synthesis and applications
Environmental nanotechnology is considered to play a principal role in shaping current environmental engineering and science. Looking at the nanoscale has stimulated the development and use of novel and cost-effective technologies for catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants as well as other environmental concerns. Polymer-based nanocomposites (PNCs) which incorporate the advantages of both nanoparticles and polymers, received increasing attention in both academia and industry. This introductory review focuses on the general introduction of the nanocomposites, and the synthetic routes ofnanocomposites. It will explore the application of nanocomposites for environmental remediation as well.
Keywords: nanotechnology, PNCs, synthesis, applications
Encapsulation of lipophilic bioactive: a Review
The lipophilic food bioactive has attracted great interest by food and pharmaceutical industries due to their potential health benefits. However, the effectiveness of these components is restricted due to poor solubility, oxidation and variable bioavailability. The utilization of these compounds in form of encapsulated one can effectively alleviate these drawbacks. The technologies of encapsulation, including spray drying, coacervation, liposome entrapment, nanoencapsulation, nanogels and nanoemulsion, are discussed in this review paper.
Key words: lipophilic, nanoencapsulation, food.
Blending scenarios for microalgae biodiesel with waste cooking oils biodiesel, Butanol and Indian petro-diesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines
Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), decided to blend at least 20% biofuels with diesel and petrol by 2017. Biodiesel has obtained from algal oils and waste cooking oil that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel.In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalgaeChlorella singularisand waste cooking oil has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM) and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Indian petro-diesel. The obtained results showed that; C2+A2+B8+D88 blended biodiesel of algae and cooked oil showed that the high oxidation stability and higher load carrying. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.
Key words: Microalgae;waste cooking oils; biodiesel; Butanol; Indian petro-diesel.
Current Scenario on Neural tissue engineering
Worldwide millions of people suffer from nerve tissue injury- SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) that will result paralysis and experience of life-threatening problems. Till date there are different methods have been described to be effective in the treatment of SCI but there is no remedy available for full functional recovery of SCI. Stem cells and tissue specific growth factors entrapped matrixes along with the tissue engineering principle are the used for the treatments and for repairing SCI. Although these techniques overcome the limitation of traditional clinical methods but still they cannot restore the bio-functionality of the regenerated tissue after the injury. Therefore, the major challenge that is faced by the biomedical experts is to repair and regenerated a structural bio-functional damaged nerve tissue.
Key words: soya bean , Chunks , Water absorption capacity, moisture level, Protein test
Removal of Empty Bands from Speech Signals in Hindi
In order to provide speech analysis, speech production and perception can be exploited with the help of various speech processing applications. Few properties or features can be extracted from speech signal S(n) with the help of speech analysis. With the objective of simplifying the speech signal and for removing the redundancy present within the speech signal, the transformation of S(n) is done into another signal. In this research work, the novel technique is proposed to remove empty bands from the speech signal. The proposed technique is based on the threshold value for the removal of empty bands. In the proposed technique, the frequency of each band is calculated and a band which has frequency below threshold value is removed from the signal. The performance of the proposed technique is tested in MATLAB and it is analyzed that proposed technique performs well in terms speech enhancement.
Key words: Empty bands, LDA.
Production and analysis of legumes based chunks
Legumes and pulses are rich sources of protein. Chunks are good source of protein for vegan diet. Chunks can prepared with soyabean , legumes and vegetables. Theobjective of present study was to prepare and analyses preserved chunks.The study established the pH7.40 this pH was maintained by proper dehydration. Moisture content of the green gram chunks 10% andsoya chunks 15% Moisture content of gram flour chunk is 10%. Therefore, this is the reason of the variation in moisture present in the chunks. Water absorption capacity of domestic chunk is 8gm in total 100 gram chunks.Protein content of gram flour chunk is 5. 13% and that of soya chunk is 5.3%.Chunks are dried product of green gram, gram flour and soya bean which can prepared by soaking, drying and mixing of pulses and spices. This chunk is good option for protein source and can be alternate for food processing industry.
Key words: soya bean , chunks , water absorption capacity, moisture level, Protein test